Multan witnessed difficult times as the Mughal Empire waned in power following the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707.Under Mughal rule, Multan enjoyed 200 years of peace in a time when the city became known as Dar al-Aman ("Abode of Peace").Multan's urban typology is similar to other ancient cities in South Asia, such as Peshawar, Lahore, and Delhi - all of which were founded near a major river, and included an old walled city, as well as a royal citadel.Multan is located in Punjab, and covers an area of 133 square kilometres (51 sq mi).The region is home to numerous archaeological sites dating to the era of the Early Harappan period of the Indus Valley Civilisation, Multan is believed to have been the Malli capital that was conquered by Alexander the Great in 326 BCE as part of the Mallian Campaign.
Qarmatians zealots had famously sacked Mecca, Mahmud of Ghazni in 1005 led an expedition against Multan's Qarmatian ruler Abdul Fateh Daud.
The 1848 Multan Revolt and subsequent Siege of Multan began on 19 April 1848 when local Sikhs loyal to Diwan Mulraj Chopra murdered two emissaries of the British Raj, Vans Agnew and Lieutenant Anderson.
The British conquest of the Sikh Empire was completed in February 1849, after the British victory at the Battle of Gujrat.
The 10th century Persian geographer Estakhri noted that the city of Multan was approximately half the size of Sindh's Mansura, which along with Multan were the only two Arab principalities in South Asia.
Arabic and Sindhi were spoken in both cities, By the mid 10th century, Multan had come under the influence of the Qarmatian Ismailis.